Brain oedema is a life-threatening complication of various neurological conditions. Understanding molecular mechanisms of brain volume regulation is critical for therapy development. Unique insight comes from monogenic diseases characterized by chronic brain oedema, of which megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) is the prototype. Variants in MLC1 or GLIALCAM, encoding proteins involved in astrocyte volume regulation, are the main causes of MLC. In some patients the genetic cause remains unknown. We performed genetic studies to identify novel gene variants in MLC patients, diagnosed by clinical and MRI features, without MLC1 or GLIALCAM variants. We determined subcellular localization of the related novel proteins in cells and in human brain tissue. We investigated functional consequences of the newly identified variants on volume regulation pathways using cell volume measurements, biochemical analysis and electrophysiology. We identified a novel homozygous variant in AQP4, encoding the water channel aquaporin-4, in two siblings, and two de novo heterozygous variants in GPRC5B, encoding the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPRC5B, in three unrelated patients. The AQP4 variant disrupts membrane localization and thereby channel function. GPRC5B, like MLC1, GlialCAM and aquaporin-4, is expressed in astrocyte endfeet in human brain. Cell volume regulation is disrupted in GPRC5B patient-derived lymphoblasts. GPRC5B functionally interacts with ion channels involved in astrocyte volume regulation. In conclusion, we identify aquaporin-4 and GPRC5B as old and new players in genetic brain oedema. Our findings shed light on the protein complex involved in astrocyte volume regulation and identify GPRC5B as novel potentially druggable target for treating brain oedema.