A major challenge in the field of the biogenic amine histamine is the search for new-generation histamine receptor specific drugs. Daniel Bovet and Sir James Black received their Nobel Prizes for Medicine for their work on histamine-1 receptor (H1R) and H2R antagonists to treat allergies and gastrointestinal disorders. The first H3R-targeting drug to reach the market was approved for the treatment of the neurological disorder narcolepsy in 2018. The antagonists for the most recently identified histamine receptor, H4R, are currently under clinical evaluation for their potential therapeutic effects on inflammatory diseases such as atopic dermatitis and pruritus. In this chapter, we propose that H4R antagonists are endowed with prominent anti-inflammatory and immune effects, including in the brain. To substantiate this proposition, we combine data from transcriptional analyses of postmortem human neurodegenerative disease brain samples, human genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and translational animal model studies. The results prompt us to suggest the potential involvement of the H4R in various neurodegenerative diseases and how manipulating the H4R may create new therapeutic opportunities in central nervous system diseases.
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